I was planning to write an extensive article about metering and metering modes but the article on Petapixel.com is very good. So why bother inventing the wheel twice ?? If you want to know about metering modes and why/how to use it, read the article on Petapixel. Very well explained.
In short: most people use evaluative metering. Say, the ‘standard’ metering mode. And in most situations it is quite adequate. But… there is always a but 🙂 For those situations that it is not adequate you have various other metering modes on your camera. The article explains what they are, how and when to use. So if you interested in getting more out of your camera and photos, read the article.
And don’t think this is limited to your Mirrorless or DSLR camera. The more upmarket phones with ‘Pro’ modes etc. offer also various choices of metering ! On the image below, number 8 is the icon for metering. Tap on it, and you can change the metering mode. (Samsung phone).